Steps for Starting a Virginia Farm Winery (Cidery, Meadery)

Thank you for considering what it takes to open a farm winery in Loudoun County! Northern Virginia is a nationally-recognized wine region thanks to talented farmers and winemakers like you.

This page is designed to give you an overview of important considerations before establishing a farm winery, but your specific situation may have different requirements. The Revised 1993 Loudoun County Zoning Ordinance is the ruling document.

Working with Loudoun County and Virginia Commonwealth staff will help verify that those requirements are met. Our combined goal is to ensure that your operation is safe for customers so that your business can be successful.

Before establishing a farm winery, it is important to understand what is permitted with that use. A farm winery is subject to Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) regulations and applicable federal laws. A farm winery is a farm first and winery second, which means that your business can:

  • Produce and harvest fruit and other agricultural products;
  • Produce and manufacture wine;
  • Offer for sale, taste and consumption of wine on premises during regular business hours;
  • Directly sell and ship wine;
  • Store and warehouse wine;
  • Host educational activities and events.

Farm wineries are not commercial/full-service kitchens, restaurants, or catering operation, however, you may choose to apply for a separate restaurant use if allowed in the zoning district.

Events associated with on-site wine production are regulated by ABC. Special events open to the public or private parties not open to the public and are by invitation only, such as weddings or wedding receptions, are regulated by Loudoun County (see Zoning Ordinance Section 5-500(C), Special Events).

While this page focuses on farm wineries, think about what additional uses (if any) you might consider later. Communicating these additional uses to Loudoun County and Virginia Commonwealth staff up front can help avoid surprises later in the process. If you have questions at any point, please contact Loudoun Economic Development at 1-800-LOUDOUN.

Detailed contact information for County and Commonwealth regulatory departments can be found at the bottom of this page.

Considerations Before You Buy:

Before you make any investment in the property, make sure that the parcel is zoned for your intended farm winery. Ask yourself these questions:

Is your parcel zoned for a farm winery? Contact the Department of Planning and zoning to verify.

The Zoning Ordinance provides specific development and use requirements, and your business needs a clear determination about what is allowed. Farm wineries can only be on parcels zoned AR-1, AR-2, JLMA-1, JLMA2, JLMA-3, JLMA-20, TR-10 or TR-3, either owned or leased. Planning and Zoning can also tell you if there are development regulations for your business, such as restrictions on structure size and location, signage, road width and access. They can also determine the required parking and landscaping.

Does the parcel have adequate well and septic to support the use? Contact the Health Department to verify.

Farm wineries are located on parcels typically serviced by wells and septic systems. The Health Department will make the determination if your parcel’s systems can support a farm winery. If the systems are inadequate, they can help get your well and septic paperwork started with the Virginia Department of Health.

Do you plan to serve food on premises? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning and the Health Department with questions.

Whether it’s a snack bar, mobile food truck or commercial kitchen (restaurant), Planning and Zoning can answer any question as to the type of food service allowed and the Health Department can answer any questions on food service regulations or direct you to the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for limited food service approval.

Are you in an “environmentally sensitive” area? Contact Department of Building and Development to verify.

Whether you plan to construct buildings, parking, or just move some earth, there may be restrictions in a Floodplain Overlay District (Zoning Ordinance Section 4-1500), Mountainside Overlay District (Section 4-1600), Limestone Overlay District (Section 4-1900), or Steep Slopes (Section 5-1508).

Have you factored in location setbacks? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning to confirm.

A minimum amount of space is needed between your construction site and property boundaries or roads, whether for parking or structures. Setbacks vary, depending on your zoning district, type of business and the type of road that your parcel fronts. See Zoning Ordinance Section 5-600 and 5-900 for definitions.

Do you need to submit site plans? Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

Depending on your projects, you might have to submit a site plan or rural economy site plan to the engineering team in Building and Development.

Considerations Before You Break Ground:

Once you have property, a business plan and a blueprint, there are steps to reach construction approval. Ask yourself these questions:

Do you need a grading permit? Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

If you’re planning to disturb more than 5,000 square feet of land, which includes applying gravel or other materials, or move dirt in any “environmentally sensitive” area, you will need a grading permit.

Do you need a building permit? Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

Whether you’re building new or altering the use of an existing structure, you will need a building permit from Building and Development, unless it is exempt under Virginia law (Click to apply for exemption). Safety is an important consideration for farm wineries, so we encourage all rural businesses to utilize minimum fire and life safety standards. Going through the permitting process ensures that details of your plan aren’t overlooked. This reduces surprises later and could help in getting your space insured.

Do you need to modify access to roads? Contact Virginia Department of Transportation to verify and Department of Planning and Zoning with questions.

If your parcel is accessible by state roads, access points may need to be improved to accommodate customer traffic. If so, you will need permit approval from VDOT. Department of Planning and Zoning can answer any question as to whether on-site driveways may need to be improved.

Do you need a zoning permit? Contact Department of Building and Development to verify.

A zoning permit is required for new construction or the expansion of existing structures, to start a new use or to change use (turning another rural business into a farm winery), or expand an approved use.

Considerations Before Opening for Business:

Once you have completed the construction process, there are a few more considerations before opening to the public. Ask yourself these questions:

Do you have a license to serve or sell alcohol? Contact Virginia ABC for information.

Whether you plan to serve, sell or retail alcohol on premises, you will need a Virginia Farm Winery license from Virginia ABC.

Do you plan to use exterior signage? Contact Department of Building and Development for information.

Signs are an important factor in marketing your business and attracting customers. Contact Building and Development for the permitted size and type of signs, then apply for a sign permit.

Have you had a fire inspection? Contact the Loudoun Fire Marshal to schedule an appointment.

The Fire Marshal must inspect to determine that your property and structures are safe for the public to use, and accessible for emergency personnel. You will also need an approved fire safety and evacuation plan, as required by the Loudoun County Fire Prevention Code. If necessary, the Fire Marshal issues your assembly permit.

Do you have enough parking? There is no required minimum number of parking spaces at a farm winery. However, for the sake of your customers, you might want to consider what will be enough to serve the best interests of your business.

Contact Us

There is a lot to consider as you imagine or expand your rural business. Loudoun County has resources to assist in planning, permitting and growing your rural business.


Department of Economic Development John Magistro 703-737-8820
Department of Planning and Zoning Planning and Zoning703-777-0246
Business Assistance Team Business Assistance Team703-777-0293
Health Department - Wells and Septic SystemsJoshua Hepner703-777-0234
Health Department - Food ServiceVictor Avitto703-771-5806
Department of Building and Development - EngineeringBuilding and Development703-777-0220
Department of Building and Development - Natural ResourcesAnna Dougherty703-737-0253
Department of Building and Development - Grading Permits Joseph Ohler703-737-8952
Department of Building and Development - Building PermitsChris Thompson703-771-5527
Department of Building and Development - Zoning PermitsBuilding and Development703-777-0220
Department of Building and Development - Sign PermitsLee Ann Baty703- 737-8205
Fire MarshalChris Barry703-737-8600


Virginia Cooperative ExtensionStuart Vermaak703-777-0373
Alcoholic Beverage ControlMarc Haalman804-213-4626
Office of Drinking WaterDavid Travers540-829-7340
Department of Agriculture and Consumer ServicesCentral Office804-786-3501
Department of Soil and WaterChris Van Vlack571-918-4530, ext. 107
Department of TransportationStaff800-367-7623