Steps for Starting a Bed & Breakfast Homestay

Thank you for considering what it takes to open a bed and breakfast homestay in Loudoun County! B&B homestays provide valuable rural lodging amenities thanks to talented entrepreneurs like you.

This page is designed to give you an overview of important considerations before establishing a B&B homestay, but your specific situation may have different requirements. The Revised 1993 Loudoun County Zoning Ordinance is the ruling document.

Working with Loudoun County and Virginia Commonwealth staff will help verify that those requirements are met. Our combined goal is to ensure that your operation is safe for customers so that your business can be successful.

Before establishing a B&B homestay, it is important to understand what is permitted with that use. Opening a B&B homestay permits you to provide:

  • One to four guest rooms for overnight guests;
  • Daily private parties of up to 20 attendees;
  • Up to 10 annual private parties of more than 20 attendees (see more below);
  • Food service for overnight guests and private party attendees.

This does not allow you to provide more than four guest rooms, 20 daily attendees or 10 annual private parties or to operate a restaurant, however, you may choose to apply for a separate restaurant use if allowed in the zoning district.

While this page focuses on B&B homestays, think about what additional uses (if any) you might consider later. Communicating these additional uses to Loudoun County and Virginia Commonwealth staff up front can help avoid surprises later in the process. If you have questions at any point, please contact Loudoun Economic Development at 1-800-LOUDOUN.

Detailed contact information for County and Commonwealth regulatory departments can be found at the bottom of this page.

Considerations Before You Buy:

Before you make any investment in the property, make sure that the parcel is zoned for your intended B&B homestay. Ask yourself these questions:

Is your parcel zoned for a B&B homestay? Contact the Department of Planning and Zoning to verify.

The Zoning Ordinance provides specific development and use requirements, and your business needs a clear determination about what is allowed. B&B homestays can only be on parcels zoned AR-1, AR-2, A-3, A-10, CR-1, CR-2, RC, JLMA-1, JLMA-2, JLMA-20, TR-1, TR-3, TR-10, R-1, R-2, PD-CV(VN), PD-CV(VC), PD-CV(VCSC), PD-RV(VCSC), or PD-RV(VCRA), either owned or leased. Planning and Zoning can also tell you if there are development regulations for your business, such as restrictions on structure size and location, signage, road width and access. They can also determine required parking and landscaping. Your parcel must meet the zoning requirements for your zoning district and Section 5-601(A), which may be modified by Minor Special Exception.

Does the parcel have adequate well and septic to support the use? Contact the Health Department to verify.

B&B homestays are located on parcels typically serviced by wells and septic systems. The Health Department will make the determination if your parcel’s systems can support a B&B Homestay. If the systems are inadequate, they can help get your well and septic paperwork started with the Virginia Department of Health.

Do you plan to serve food on premises? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning and the Health Department with questions.

Whether it’s a snack bar, mobile food truck or commercial kitchen (restaurant), Planning and Zoning can answer any question as to the type of food service allowed and the Health Department can answer any questions on food service regulations or direct you to the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services for limited food service approval.

Are you in an “environmentally sensitive” area? Contact Department of Building and Development to verify.

Whether you plan to construct buildings, parking, or just move some earth, there may be restrictions in a Floodplain Overlay District (Zoning Ordinance Section 4-1500), Mountainside Overlay District (Section 4-1600), Limestone Overlay District (Section 4-1900), or Steep Slopes (Section 5-1508).

Have you factored in location setbacks? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning to confirm.

A minimum amount of space is needed between your construction site and property boundaries or roads, whether for parking or structures. Setbacks vary, depending on your zoning district, type of business and the type of road that your parcel fronts. See Zoning Ordinance Section 5-600 and 5-900 for definitions.

Do you need to submit site plans? Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

Depending on your projects, you might have to submit a site plan, rural economy site plan or sketch plan to the engineering team in Building and Development.

Considerations Before You Break Ground:

Once you have property, a business plan and a blueprint, there are steps to reach construction approval. Ask yourself these questions:

Do you need a grading permit? Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

If you’re planning to disturb more than 5,000 square feet of land, which includes applying gravel or other materials, or move dirt in any “environmentally sensitive” area, you will need a grading permit.

Do you need a building permit?  Contact Department of Building and Development to confirm.

Whether you’re building new or altering the use of an existing structure, you will need a building permit from Building and Development, unless it is exempt under Virginia law (Click to apply for exemption). Safety is an important consideration for a B&B homestay, so we encourage all rural businesses to utilize minimum fire and life safety standards. Going through the permitting process ensures that details of your plan aren’t overlooked. This reduces surprises later and could help in getting your space insured.

Do you need to modify access to roads? Contact the Virginia Department of Transportation to verify and Department of Planning and Zoning with questions.

If your parcel is accessible by state roads, access points may need to be improved to accommodate customer traffic. If so, you will need permit approval from VDOT. Department of Planning and Zoning can answer any question as to whether on-site driveways may need to be improved.

Do you need a zoning permit? Contact Department of Building and Development to verify.

A zoning permit is required for new construction or the expansion of existing structures, to start a new use or to change use (turning another rural business into a B&B homestay), or expand an approved use.

Considerations Before Opening for Business:

Once you have completed the construction process, there are a few more considerations before opening to the public. Ask yourself these questions:

Do you plan to use exterior signage? Contact Department of Building and Development for information.

Signs are an important factor in marketing your business and attracting customers. Contact Building and Development for the permitted size and type of signs, then apply for a sign permit.

Have you had a fire inspection? Contact the Loudoun Fire Marshal to schedule an appointment.

The Fire Marshal must inspect to determine that your property and structures are safe for the public to use, and accessible for emergency personnel. You may also need an approved fire safety and evacuation plan, as required by the Loudoun County Fire Prevention Code. If necessary, the Fire Marshal issues your assembly permit.

Is your private party permitted? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning to confirm.

  • If your private party has fewer than 20 attendees and is hosted in accordance with your zoning permit, then you do not need additional permission;
  • If your private party has more than 20 attendees, then you need a private party permit (issued annually) from Building and Development. This permit allows 10 such private parties per year.;
  • Agricultural buildings and structures may be used for private parties as long as the building or structure remains primarily used for on-site agricultural purposes;
  • If you erect a tent for an outside event, you need a zoning permit and may need a building permit;
  • If your tent is more than 900 square feet, it requires Fire Marshal inspection prior to each private party use;
  • Outdoor private parties must be screened from adjacent properties by a specified number of trees or a combination of landscaping and fencing. Please contact Planning and Zoning or consult Zoning Ordinance Section 5-653(A). You may request a waiver of the screening requirements from the affected adjacent property owner or request a modification or waiver of the screening requirements from the Zoning Administrator.

Do you have enough parking? Contact Department of Planning and Zoning to confirm.

Parking is required at a B&B homestay, with a minimum of 2.5 parking spaces per dwelling building, plus one parking space per guest room, plus 0.33 parking spaces per permitted private party attendee. Contact Planning and Zoning with questions about parking and consult Zoning Ordinance Section 5-1102 for specific information. For the sake of your customers, consider what will be enough to serve the best interests of your business.

Contact Us

There is a lot to consider as you imagine or expand your rural business. Loudoun County has resources to assist in planning, permitting and growing your rural business.


Department of Economic Development John Magistro 703-737-8820
Department of Planning and Zoning Planning and Zoning703-777-0246
Business Assistance Team Business Assistance Team703-777-0293
Health Department - Wells and Septic SystemsJoshua Hepner703-777-0234
Health Department - Food ServiceVictor Avitto703-771-5806
Department of Building and Development - EngineeringBuilding and Development703-777-0220
Department of Building and Development - Natural ResourcesAnna Dougherty703-737-0253
Department of Building and Development - Grading Permits Joseph Ohler703-737-8952
Department of Building and Development - Building PermitsChris Thompson703-771-5527
Department of Building and Development - Zoning PermitsBuilding and Development703-777-0220
Department of Building and Development - Sign PermitsLee Ann Baty703- 737-8205
Fire MarshalChris Barry703-737-8600


Virginia Cooperative ExtensionStuart Vermaak703-777-0373
Alcoholic Beverage ControlMarc Haalman804-213-4626
Office of Drinking WaterDavid Travers540-829-7340
Department of Agriculture and Consumer ServicesCentral Office804-786-3501
Department of Soil and WaterChris Van Vlack571-918-4530, ext. 107
Department of TransportationStaff800-367-7623